Simply put, the business and technology implications for autonomous vehicles, or Automated Driving Systems (ADSs) per the U.S. Department of Transportation (DoT), for those making or using vacuum equipment and related materials, are enormous. These vehicles will require powerful and reliable ICs plus sophisticated MEMS sensors and actuators—all made with vacuum-centric technology to varying degrees.
Will ADSs be widely accepted and their use be on a massive scale? No one seems to know when it will happen on a large scale but some huge global companies are betting that it will be soon. The driving public may be skeptical of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) at the moment but that was true with personal computers and smartphones too. Before the iPhone just a little over a decade ago, how many of us would have thought that today’s reliance on smartphones, laptops and other mobile devices would be so pervasive, even for TV experiences, on the smaller screens?
Many huge manufacturing and high-tech firms using contract manufacturers to build their products are involved that are not part the automobile industry itself. Insurance companies would really like ADS as would cities where gridlock traffic and accidents are a constant problem as are driver distractions. Adding some control to vehicles could help reduce accidents and traffic jams.
With President Trump proclaiming that massive infrastructure investment is needed, as have several previous presidents, it might actually happen this time. If roads are going to be rebuilt for the 21st Century, then we need smarter roads, bridges, etc. —computational devices, sensors, actuators, precise positioning information, and other technologies to make ADS vehicles safe and reliable. ADSs absolutely rely upon Artificial Intelligence (AI) and that is computational intensive. The value of electrical/electronics content in new vehicles now exceeds the mechanical component costs.
Autonomous Vehicles Defined
So what exactly is an autonomous vehicle or ADS?
“An autonomous car (also known as a driverless car, auto, self-driving car, robotic car) and Unmanned Ground Vehicle is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input. Many such systems are evolving, but as of 2017 no cars permitted on public roads were fully autonomous. They all require a human at the wheel who must be ready to take control at any time.” per Wikipedia [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_car]. Intel Corp. uses automotive Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) terminology.
With so many distracted drivers making your commute or everyday driving trips hazardous, perhaps ADSs does offer some compelling advantages worth consideration.
The U.S. DoT recently issued their “Automated Driving Systems (ADSs)” report. In it, Secretary Elaine L. Chao says, “Today, our country is on the verge of one of the most exciting and important innovations in transportation history— the development of Automated Driving Systems (ADSs), commonly referred to as automated or self-driving vehicles.
“The future of this new technology is so full of promise. It’s a future where vehicles increasingly help drivers avoid crashes. It’s a future where the time spent commuting is dramatically reduced, and where millions more—including the elderly and people with disabilities–gain access to the freedom of the open road. And, especially important, it’s a future where highway fatalities and injuries are significantly reduced.
“Since the Department of Transportation was established in 1966, there have been more than 2.2 million motor- vehicle-related fatalities in the United States. In addition, after decades of decline, motor vehicle fatalities spiked by more than 7.2 percent in 2015, the largest single-year increase since 1966. The major factor in 94 percent of all fatal crashes is human error. So ADSs have the potential to significantly reduce highway fatalities by addressing the root cause of these tragic crashes.”
A report from AAA reveals that the majority of U.S. drivers seek autonomous technologies in their next vehicle, but they continue to fear the fully self-driving car, so far. Despite the prospect that autonomous vehicles will be safer, more efficient and more convenient than their human-driven counterparts, three-quarters of U.S. drivers report feeling afraid to ride in a self-driving car, and only 10 percent report that they’d actually feel safer sharing the roads with driverless vehicles. As automakers press forward in the development of autonomous vehicles, AAA urges the gradual, safe introduction of these technologies to ensure that American drivers are informed, prepared and comfortable with this shift in mobility. [http://newsroom.aaa.com/2017/03/americans-feel-unsafe-sharing-road-fully-self-driving-cars/]
From a practical perspective, it will take a while to improve infrastructure that can accommodate ADSs and for the inevitable tweaking of the many ADS systems.
Tech Giants Pushing ADS Technology
For those exploring ADS technology’s opportunities, consider SAE International’s efforts to date. It is a global association of more than 128,000 engineers and related technical experts in the aerospace, automotive and commercial-vehicle industries [https://www.sae.org/misc/pdfs/automated_driving.pdf]. It’s worth reading their description of then levels of Driving Automation to better understand the challenges involved. Although it certainly addresses vehicles, it also has aerospace implications. Military drones today, and some missiles, use AI to perform their assigned tasks. Decades ago, fully automated aircraft with automated air traffic control (ATC) was demonstrated.
A few weeks ago, Brian Krzanich, the chief executive officer of Intel Corp., announced the fact that Waymo and Intel were collaborating on self-driving car technology.
Autonomous Driving will End Human Driving Errors and Lead to Safer Roads for Everyone.
Per Mr. Krzanich, “One of the big promises of artificial intelligence (AI) is our driverless future. Nearly 1.3 million people die in road crashes worldwide every year – an average 3,287 deaths a day1. Nearly 90 percent of those collisions are caused by human error. Self-driving technology can help prevent these errors by giving autonomous vehicles the capacity to learn from the collective experience of millions of cars – avoiding the mistakes of others and creating a safer driving environment.
“Given the pace at which autonomous driving is coming to life, I fully expect my children’s children will never have to drive a car. That’s an astounding thought: Something almost 90 percent of Americans do every day will end within a generation. With so much life-saving potential, it’s a rapid transformation that Intel is excited to be at the forefront of along with other industry leaders like Waymo.
“Waymo’s newest vehicles, the self-driving Chrysler Pacifica hybrid minivans, feature Intel-based technologies for sensor processing, general compute and connectivity, enabling real-time decisions for full autonomy in city conditions. As Waymo’s self-driving technology becomes smarter and more capable, its high-performance hardware and software will require even more powerful and efficient compute. By working closely with Waymo, Intel can offer Waymo’s fleet of vehicles the advanced processing power required for level 4 and 5 autonomy.
“With 3 million miles of real-world driving, Waymo cars with Intel technology inside have already processed more self-driving car miles than any other autonomous fleet on U.S. roads. Intel’s collaboration with Waymo ensures Intel will continue its leading role in helping realize the promise of autonomous driving and a safer, collision-free future,” added Krzanich
Consumer Adoption of ADS Driving & On-Demand Car Services
The Gartner Consumer Trends in Automotive online survey, conducted from April 2017 through May 2017, polled 1,519 people in the U.S. and Germany, found that 55 percent of respondents will not consider riding in a fully autonomous vehicle, while 71 percent may consider riding in a partially autonomous vehicle. Gartner, Inc. is a global research and advisory company [http://www.gartner.com/technology/home.jsp].
The Gartner survey say that “…concerns around technology failures and security are key reasons why many consumers are cautious about fully autonomous vehicles. Fear of autonomous vehicles getting confused by unexpected situations, safety concerns around equipment and system failures and vehicle and system security are top concerns around using fully autonomous vehicles,” explains Mike Ramsey, research director at Gartner. Survey respondents agreed that fully autonomous vehicles do offer many advantages, including improved fuel economy and a reduced number and severity of crashes. Additional benefits they identified include were having a safe transportation option when drivers are tired and using travel time for entertainment and work.
The survey also found that consumers who currently embrace on-demand car services are more likely to ride in and purchase partially and fully autonomous vehicles. “This signifies that these more evolved users of transportation methods are more open toward the concept of autonomous cars,” said Mr. Ramsey.
Next time: More on widespread ADS/ADAS (advanced driver assistance systems) efforts worldwide.